LINUX-USER message #76 from Janis Kracht to All.

Entered on 15th March, 2000 at 22:18, 268 lines.

Subject: Linux-user Tips 004

Sorry - I know it's been a while <smile>

Linux-User Tips 004 March 15th, 2000.

What's covered in this doc:
1. Locating logs and tracking them.
2. Finding out how to fix a problem, with man pages (console and kde) 3. Using Info (console and kde)
4. Alphabetical listing of more commands 5. KDE keyboard commands

Now and again you may run into problems, and need to find the logs to show you what happened on your system.

1. Where to find logs and info

file purpose

/var/log/messages         system wide errors
/var/log/xdm-error        X server errors are sometimes documented in
                          /var/log/xdm-error or in files in your home
                          directory in .Xerrors or .Xsession-errors.

If you've got apache httpd server running, then you may also see these:

/var/log/httpd/access_log log of users who've visited /var/log/httpd/error_log errors reported by the web server.

To create entries tracking these logs, you can type 'tail -f /var/log/messages' in an xterm window or another console.

Basically, you can create error logs of programs you run with this:

'[command] 2> error.log'

This will write error messages of command being run to a file called error.log.

You can do the same with X: In an xterm, type the command in a virtual console window.

2. To find out how to fix a problem:

To find out what's wrong or how to fix a problem, you can use the system's documentation, called man pages. You can read them by typing man [command]. You can read the GNU help documentation by typing info [command]

What are man pages? These are the standard help files and are provided with most Linux distributions. Note that KDE apps and GNU software usually come with their own documentation, though.

helpme (in a console) and helptool (in X) These commands search the

          contents of given directories for a specified string and display
          the contents. Type helpme --help to see the arguments this command
          expects in a console.

man [command] Shows you the man page of that command. man -f [command] Shows you a one-line description of the commands

man -k [string] Searches for a given string in the synopsis lines of

                   all man pages.
              ex: man -k X      will give you a long list of all man pages
                                related to X windows)
man -K [string]    Searches the whole body of _every_ manpage for
                   the string. Could be a _bit_ lengthy :)

Movement on man pages:

The man pages use the same keys as less (n, p, PgUp, PgDn etc.)

/[string]     Search forward for a string.
n             Next match
?[string]     Next match backwards.
b             Move back one screen.
h             help on man keys/commands
q             Exit man page

X programs to handle man pages:

KDE help ('man [command]')

3. Using Info (console and kde)
info files are usually provided by programs written by GNU (like gcc, Emacs, many system utilities). They provide a hypertext-type help system.
info [command]      Displays info page of that command. n for (next)
                    occurance, p (previous), u (up), <enter>
                    (follows link). The top line of every info file will
                    show you where these commands will take you.

or in an Xterm:
info [command]

4. Alphabetical listing of more commands:
And there are still tons more, but these are I think appropriate for the discussion above. Read about these commands with man [command], please. I'll try to provide examples in the next issue.


alias                Change the name of a command.
at                   Runs a program at a certain time
atq                  Lists programs waiting to be run by at
atrm                 Removes programs from the at queue
cat                  Concatenate files and print on  standard output
cd                   Change to a directory
chfn                 Changes information displayed by  finger
chmod                Change access permissions of files
chown                Change the user and group ownership of files
chsh                 Change your shell
control-panel        System administration tool
cp                   Copy files
dd                   Copy disk images
df                   Available free disk space
dir                  List directory contents
dmesg                List startup messages
du                   Disk space used
dump                 Used to backup filesystems
e2fsck               File system checker
export               Set environment variables in bash
find                 Find files
fdformat             Low level format a floppy disk
fdisk                Used to create and delete partitions
finger               Look up user information
free                 Display amount of free and used memory in the system
grep                 Find lines matching a certain pattern
groupadd             Add a new group
groupdel             Delete a group
groups               Displays a user's groups
gzip                 Compress and decompress files
halt                 Shut down system
host                 Look up host information
hostname             Show or set the system's host name
ifconfig             Setup network interfaces, or report the current status
init                 Change run level
insmod               Install modules
kill                 Abort system processes
less                 Filter for viewing files and directories
ln                   Create links between files or directories
locate               Locate files that match a certain pattern
login                Sign on to system or switch users
logout               Sign off of current user
lpc                  Manage printer queue
lpq                  View the printer queue
lpr                  Print files
ls                   List directory contents
lsmod                View loaded modules
make                 Compile and maintain programs
makewhatis           Build make database
man                  View manual pages
mcd                  Change to a directory on a DOS diskette
mcopy                Copy files to a DOS diskette
mdel                 Delete files on a DOS diskette
mdeltree             Delete directories on a DOS diskette
mdir                 List directory contents on a DOS diskette
mformat              Format DOS diskettes
mkbootdisk           Makes a boot disk :-)
mkdir                Make a new directory
mkswap               Setup swap device
modprobe             Install modules
more                 Filter for viewing files and directories
mount                Access or mount filesystems
mv                   Move or rename a file
netcfg               Network configuration tool
netstat              Displays status of network connectios
nslookup             Name server lookup tool
passwd               Change a user password
ping                 send packets to network hosts to test host
ps                   Display process status
pstree               Displays entire process tree
pwd                  Display working directory path
reboot               Reboots system
reset                Restore run-time parameters for session to default
restore              Used to restore a dump backup
rm                   Remove files
rmdir                Remove directory
rmmod                Remove loaded modules
rpm                  Manage rpm packages
set                  Temporarily change enviroment settings
shutdown             Shutdown system
startx               Start X Window System
su                   Switch to a different user
su - 'user'          Switch to this user with his full permissions/user dir
sync                 Flush buffered data to hard disk
sysinfo              Display system information
tar                  Manage archives
top                  Display top cpu processes
touch                Used to create a file or change time stamp
traceroute           Show route of IP packets
umount               Unmount filesystems
uname                Display information about your system
unzip                Extract compressed files
updatedb             Build locate database
uptime               Show how long computer has been running
useradd              Add new user accounts
userdel              Delete user accounts
usermod              Modify user accounts
whereis              Find binary, source, and manual pages for a command
which                Show full path of command
who                  Show the users who are logged in
whoami               Show the user who you are currently logged in as
xlock                Lock X Window System

4. KDE Keyboard commands:

This list of keys may help you get around on the desktop if you're running KDE.

ctl+tab             Switch between desktops
alt+tab             Switch between applications
alt+f1              Open application menu
alt+f2              Opens command window
alt+f3              Opens window menu
alt+f4              Closes window
f1                  Opens help for program
f2                  Finds a word in a page
f3                  Finds next
space               Selects/Unselect files
ctl+n               Open file manager window
ctl+a               Selects all files in current directory
ctl+t               Opens a terminal window
ctl+w               Closes window
ctl+f               Finds files
ctl+c               Copy
ctl+v               Paste

By Janis Kracht 3/15/00
Co-Moderator, Linux-user message echo.